ISSN 1817-3020 (Print)
ISSN 2542-193X (Online)

Из истории физики


Большая физическая аудитория (БФА) Саратовского университета, одна из лучших университетских аудиторий России, обладает прекрасным интерьером, большой вместимостью и хорошей акустикой. Она имеет и замечательную историю. Об одном выдающемся событии, произошедшем в БФА 100 лет назад, рассказывается в статье. 4 июня 1920 г. перед участниками III Всероссийского съезда по селекции и семеноводству с докладом «Закон гомологических рядов в наследственной изменчивости» выступил профессор агрономического факультета Саратовского университета Николай Иванович Вавилов.

Professor of Astronomy of Saratov State University Joseph Fedorovich Polak (1881–1954)

For the first time, the article provides a systematic biography of the professor of Moscow and Saratov Universities, Joseph F. Polak (1881–1954), an astronomer and teacher, the author of many textbooks and popular science publications on astronomy. In total, about 60 editions and reprints of his books were published, the total circulation of which is 2 million copies. I. F. Polak worked at the University of Saratov in 1919–1930 at the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics and at the Pedagogical Faculty, he headed the Department of Astronomy organized by him.

Профессор астрономии Саратовского университета Иосиф Фёдорович Полак (1881–1954)

В статье впервые приводятся систематизированные биографические данные профессора Московского и Саратовского университетов Иосифа Фёдоровича Полака (1881–1954), астронома и преподавателя, автора многих учебников и научно-популярных изданий по астрономии. Всего вышло около 60 изданий и переизданий его книг, общий тираж которых составляет 2 млн. экземпляров. В Саратовском университете И. Ф. Полак работал в 1919–1930 гг. на физико-математическом и педагогическом факультетах, заведовал организованной им кафедрой астрономии.

Nikolai N. Semenov: Volga-Region Themes of the Life

Some pages of the biography of Nikolai N. Semenov, Academician, Nobel Prize for Chemistry, connected to Volga-region period of his life, are described.

Scientific and Educational Physical Schools in Saratov (on the 80th Anniversary of the Saratov Region)

We present a brief history of scientific-educational schools in physics in Saratov since the founding of Saratov University (1909). Saratov belongs to Russian industrial centers that have extensive experience of research, development of technology of electronic equipment, training for this field of science and technology. The outstanding scientist Peter N. Lebedev was at the forefront of physical education and science in Saratov.

D. I. Blokhintsev about the Spiritual Foundations of Scientific Creativity

The Corresponding Member of the USSR AS Dmitrii Ivanovich Blokhintsev (10.01.1908 — 29.01.1979), one of the pioneers of atomic science and technology in USSR, the organizer and the first director of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, has his original opinions about the spiritual foundations of scientific creativity. In this brief paper, we try to treat his opinions and show how they are working in the modern physics and cosmology of the Early Universe.

Faculty of Physics and Mathematics of Saratov State University (1917–1945)

The article systematizes historical data on the opening in 1917 and the subsequent development of the Physics and Mathematics Department of Saratov University during 1917–1945. Professor Vladimir D. Zernov, Master of Physics, a student of the world famous professor of Moscow University Peter N. Lebedev was elected the first Dean of the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics on September 5, 1917. The further development of the faculty was held with the participation of leading Russian scientists.

Physics of Free-electron Lasers in Saratov State University

In the early 1970s, Saratov State University carried out research on the creation of a Compton free electron laser. The scientific group was headed by Boris Gennadievich Tsikin, associate professor of the electronics chair. The results of these works were published in central scientific journals and presented at international and allUnion scientific conferences. They received a positive assessment in the review articles published in the journal «Physics-Uspekhi».

“Enter into Action before Declaration by Governing Senate” (On the History of the Establishment of the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics at Saratov State University)

The full verified text of the Decree of the Provisional Government of Russia dated July 1 (14), 1917, from the newspaper “Newsletter of the Provisional Government” dated July 23 (August 5), 1917, about the establishment of the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics at the Saratov University is analyzed. The main milestones of the biography of Pavel Ivanovich Preobrazhensky (1874–1944), are given.

Saratov Pages of the History of Physics: V. P. Jousset, E. F. Gross

The facts from the biography of V. P. Zhuze and E. F. Gross, related to their work at the Saratov State University, have been described. The content of new effects and relationships, which were established for the first time by V. P. Zhuze and E. F. Gross and became the history of semiconductor physics, has been briefly described. The information on the development of the research direction, for the first time organized at the Saratov State University by V. P. Zhuze, after his departure has been presented. The conclusion on the influence of V. P. Zhuze and E. F.