Izvestiya of Saratov University.
ISSN 1817-3020 (Print)
ISSN 2542-193X (Online)


Toxicity of Upconversion Nanoparticles. Overview

Background and Objectives: The object of the study was the toxicity of upconversion nanoparticles. The aim is to overview the literature on the toxicity of various types of upconversion nanoparticles and to search for their maximum permissible concentration when administered to laboratory animals in vivo. Materials and Methods: The approach used has been the analysis of recent publications on the topic.


В работе приведен обзор результатов исследований по выявлению токсичности различных типов апконверсионных наночастиц. Апконверсионные частицы являются перспективными для визуализации структуры биологических тканей и органов в люминесцентном свете, а также для использования при диагностике заболеваний и фотоиндуцированной терапии. Рассмотрены наночастицы с дополнительными оболочками или функционализированные при помощи покрытия поверхности адресными или фотоактивными молекулами, позволяющими создание частиц с несколькими модальностями.

Dynamics of Morphological and Biochemical Changes in Laboratory Animals with Transplanted Kidney Cancer after Intravenous Injection of Gold Nanoshells

The effect of intravenously injected nanoshells on white outbred male rats with transplanted tumor of kidney cancer was studied. The blood biochemical parameters and morphological changes in the rat internal organs were examined during 24 h after nanoparticle injection. The most pronounced changes were observed 45 min – 2 h after nanoparticle injection and were reversible.

Morphological Changes in the Internal Organs of Laboratory Animals under a Single Administration of Fe Nanoparticles

The cytotoxic effect of iron nanoparticles of size of 70 nm was studied in an experiment with single intramuscular and oral administration in albino mice and rats. Morphological changes were assessed in the internal organs, brain and the injection site. Studies had shown that intramuscular changes are more pronounced than when nanoparticles were administered orally and were shown in signs of cell damage while after the oral administration the blood flow changes in vessels were noted.

Modulating Effect of High-Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation on Hydrogen Sulfide Toxicity

On the basis of experimental investigation it is determined that highfrequency electromagnetic radiation of low intensity has a significant effect on the development of hydrogen sulfide toxicity during the inhalation process. Toxicity parameters reduce by 5–6 times if hydrogen sulfide is exposed to rays. The reduction of gas toxicity is obviously connected with appearance of quasi-stable intermolecular bonds that is the reason of dimer formations.