Izvestiya of Saratov University.

Physics

ISSN 1817-3020 (Print)
ISSN 2542-193X (Online)


For citation:

Khvalin A. L., Kalinin A. V. Modeling power amplifiers in the Microwave Office environment. Izvestiya of Sarat. Univ. Physics. , 2021, vol. 21, iss. 3, pp. 275-284. DOI: 10.18500/1817-3020-2021-21-3-275-284

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC-BY 4.0).
Published online: 
31.08.2021
Full text:
(downloads: 19)
Language: 
Russian
Article type: 
Article
UDC: 
621.37

Modeling power amplifiers in the Microwave Office environment

Autors: 
Khvalin Alexander Lvovich, Saratov State University
Kalinin Artem Victorovich, Saratov State University
Abstract: 

 Background and Objectives: A very difficult and urgent task is to obtain high output powers of transistor amplifiers. This class of devices in many radio engineering systems determines the most important technical parameters of the system, such as radiated and consumed power, bandwidth, dimensions and weight, reliability and cost. Known monolithic amplifier designs make it possible to obtain tens and hundreds of watts of output power. However, monolithic structures have limited operating frequency ranges, usually no more than a few hundred megahertz. Expansion of the operating frequency range of the power amplifier is possible by using discrete transistor crystals as active elements. The use of discrete crystals of transistors allows you to include elements of matching between amplification stages and significantly improve the main characteristics of the amplifier: VSWR of the input / output, gain, efficiency, operating frequency range (up to one octave or more). According to a number of criteria, a bipolar transistor of Russian production 2T937A was selected as active elements. Materials and Methods: When designing the amplifier, discrete crystals of a bipolar transistor 2Т937А were used. However, in computer modeling of radio engineering devices, it is necessary to take into account the absence of models of many Russian and foreign transistors in CAD libraries (in particular, Microwave Office), which significantly limits the possibilities of designing devices based on them. The article uses a computer model of the 2T937A transistor, obtained as a result of solving the problems of multicriteria optimization of the equivalent circuit of the transistor. Experimental characteristics of the bipolar transistor 2Т937А (static and frequency parameters) were used as optimization goals. The simulation of the transistor was carried out according to the equivalent Gummel – Poon circuit in the CAD Microwave Office. The article presents the design of a power amplifier based on 2T937A and its main units: power dividers / adders for two channels, a basic two-stage amplifier module. The corresponding problems of parametric and structural optimization are formulated and solved. Results: As a result of the research carried out, a microstrip power amplifier design was obtained on a 1 mm thick polycor substrate with a gain of 14–15 dB in the frequency range from 2 to 4 GHz. The output power is 22.5 W, the VSWR of the input and output is no more than 1.5. Conclusion: The device can be used as a pre-amplifier in the tasks of obtaining high values of the output power of the UHF and VHF ranges.

Reference: 
  1. Khvalin A. L. Analiz i sintez integral’nyh magnitoupravljaemyh radiotekhnicheskikh ustrojstv na ferritovykh rezonatorakh [Analysis and Synthesis of Integral Magnetically Controlled Radio Devices on Ferrite Resonators]. Diss. Dr. Sci. (Tech.). Samara, 2014. 32 p. (in Russian).
  2. Titkov A. A., Khvalin A. L. Measurement of static and frequency characteristics of a bipolar transistor. Izmeritel’naya tekhnika [Measurement Technigues], 2019, no. 8, pp. 58–62 (in Russian).
  3. Khvalin A. L., Titkov A. A., Lyashenko A. V. Experimental studies of the main characteristics of the 2T937 transistor. Geteromagnitnaya mikroelektronika, 2019, iss. 26, pp. 4–10 (in Russian).
  4. Khvalin A. L., Lyashenko A. V. Multichannel microstrip divider / power combiner. Geteromagnitnaya mikroelektronika, 2019, no. 27, pp. 43–50 (in Russian).
  5. Kalinin A. V., Khvalin A. L. Tunable Radio Engineering Noise Generators. Geteromagnitnaya mikroelektronika, 2019, no. 27, pp. 31–43 (in Russian).
  6. Ma H., van der Zee R., Nauta B. A high-voltage class-D power amplifier with switching frequency regulation for improved high-efficiency output power range. IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, June 2015, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 1451– 1462. https://doi.org/10.1109/JSSC.2015.2421994
  7. Zhong S., Xu J., Chen J., Zhou X. Battery powered high efficiency single-stage switching amplifier. Electron. Lett., June 2016, vol. 52, no. 12, pp. 1052–1054. https:// doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2018.2815953
  8. Seung Kyu Oh, Moon Uk Cho, James Dallas, Taehoon Jang, Dong Gyu Lee, Sara Pouladi, Jie Chen, Weijie Wang, Shahab Shervin, Hyunsoo Kim, Seungha Shin, Sukwon Choi, Joon Seop Kwak, Jae Hyun Ryou. High-power flexible AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors with suppression of negative differential conductance. Appl. Phys. Lett., 2017, vol. 111, no. 13, article number 133502. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5004799
  9. Zhang H., Li J., Liu D., Min S., Chang T. H., Xiong K., Park SH., Kim J., Jung YH., Park J., Lee J., Han J., Katehi L., Cai Z., Gong S., Ma Z. Heterogeneously integrated fl exible microwave amplifi ers on a cellulose nanofi bril substrate. Nat. Commun, 2020, vol. 11, article number 3118. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16957-4
  10. Vegas D., Moreno F., Ruiz M. N., García J. A. Effi cient class-E power amplifi er for variable load operation. Proc. Integrated Nonlinear Microwave and Millimetre-Wave Circuits Workshop, April 2017, pp. 1–4. https://doi.org/10.1109/INMMIC.2017.7927319
  11. Popovic´ Z., García J. A. Microwave class-E power amplifiers. Proc. IEEE MTT-S Int. Microwave Symp., 2017, pp. 1323–1326. https://doi.org/10.1109/MWSYM.2017.8058855
  12. Song P., Oakley M., Ulusoy A. C., Kaynak M., Tillack B., Sadowy G. A class-E tuned W-band SiGe power amplifier with 40.4% power-added efficiency at 93 GHz. IEEE Microwave Compon. Lett., October 2015, vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 663–665. https://doi.org/10.1109/LMWC.2015.2463231
  13. Alsuraisry H., Wu M. H., Huang P. S., Tsai J. H., Huang T. W. 5.3 GHz 42% PAE class-E power amplifier with 532 mW/mm 2 power area density in 180 nm CMOS process. Electron. Lett., July 2016, vol. 52, no. 15, pp. 1338–1340. https://doi.org/10.1049/el.2016.1629
  14. Jiang X. Fundamentals of audio class D amplifier design: A review of schemes and architectures. IEEE Solid-State Circuits Mag., August 2017, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 14–25. https://doi.org/10.1109/MSSC.2017.2712368
  15. Chen S.-H. Embedded single inductor bipolar-output dc–dc converter in class-D amplifier for low common noise. IEEE Trans. Power Electron., April 2016, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 3106–3117. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2015.2446510
  16. Kats B. M., Meschanov V. P., Khvalin A. L. Synthesis of superwide-band matching adapters in round coaxial lines. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 2001, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 575–579. https://doi.org/10.1109/22.910569
  17. Zhou X., Xu J., Zhong S., Liu Y. Soft switching symmetric bipolar outputs dc-transformer (DCX) for eliminating power supply pumping of half-bridge class-D audio amplifier. IEEE Trans. Power Electron., July 2019, vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 6440–6455. https://doi.org/10.1109/tpel.2018.2873234
  18. Alfred Lim, Aarom Tan, Zhi-Hui Kong, Kaixue Ma. A Design Methodology and Analysis for Transformer Based Class-E Power Amplifier. Electronics, May 2019, vol. 8, no. 5, p. 494. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8050494
  19. Chaudhary V., Rao I. S. A novel 2GHz highly efficiency improved class-E power amplifier for base stations. Proc. Int. Conf. Communication and Signal Processing, 2015, pp. 0940–0944. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICCSP.2015.7322634
  20. de Cos J., Suárez A., García J. A. Hysteresis and oscillation in high-efficiency power amplifiers. IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., December 2015, vol. 63, no. 12, pp. 4284– 4296. https://doi.org/10.1109/TMTT.2015.2492968
Received: 
18.11.2020
Accepted: 
26.04.2021
Published: 
31.08.2021